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Metformin | Biguanide | Anti-diabetic

IntroductionMetformin, marketed under the trade names Glucophage, Neophage, Neodipar and others, is the first-line treatment for type 2 diabetes, particularly in overweight people. It’s also used to treat polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS).  It is taken by mouth and is not linked to weight gain. It’s sometimes used as an off-label supplement to help persons who take antipsychotics and phenelzine avoid gaining weight.
Class of MedicineMetformin belongs to a group of medicines known as biguanides. Metformin aids in the regulation of glucose (sugar) levels in the blood. It reduces the amount of glucose you receive from food as well as the quantity of glucose your liver produces.
Mode of ActionThe mechanisms of action of metformin are distinct from those of other oral antihyperglycemic medications. Metformin lowers blood glucose levels by reducing hepatic glucose synthesis (gluconeogenesis), lowering glucose absorption in the intestine, and improving insulin sensitivity by enhancing peripheral glucose uptake and utilisation Label. Metformin is widely known for inhibiting mitochondrial complex I activity, and it has long been assumed that this is how it achieves its effective anti-diabetic actions 6,11. The actions described above result in a drop in blood glucose, which helps to manage type 2 diabetes and improve glycemic control.
Medical UsesMetformin is a drug that is used to treat and prevent type 2 diabetes in those who are at a high risk of developing it. Metformin is used to treat polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), despite the fact that it isn’t officially approved for the condition.
Avaiability & UsageMetformin is available as tablet, and extended-release (long-acting) tablet for oral administration. The standard tablet is usually taken two or three times a day with meals. The extended-release tablet is normally taken with dinner once a day. Take metformin at the same time(s) every day to help you remember to take it.
Follow the directions on your prescription label carefully, and if there is anything you don’t understand, ask your doctor or pharmacist to explain it to you. Metformin should be used exactly as prescribed. Do not take more or less of it, or take it more frequently than your doctor has suggested.
Side EffectsMetformin, like all drugs, can produce adverse effects, though not everyone experiences them.

Side effects that are common:
More than 1 in 100 people have common side effects.

If these side effects annoy you or do not go away after a week, talk to your doctor or pharmacist:

feeling unwell (nausea)
diarrhoea or getting sick (vomiting)
stomach pains
a decrease in appetite
In the mouth, there is a metallic taste.

Important WarningMetformin use is strongly discouraged in some individuals whose kidneys do not function normally because it increases the chance of developing lactic acidosis, a dangerous and potentially fatal condition in which too much lactic acid builds up in the blood.
Available BrandsGlucophage


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Sitagliptin | DPP-4 inhibitor | Gliptin

IntroductionSitagliptin, sold under the brand names of Sita, SitaGlu, is an anti-diabetic drug that is used to treat type 2 diabetes. It is described as being less desirable in the United Kingdom than metformin or a sulfonylurea. It is administered orally. It’s also available as sitagliptin/metformin, a fixed-dose combination drug (Sita-met, Sitaglu-met etc.)
Class of MedicineSitagliptin is a member of the dipeptidylpeptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4 inhibitors) or gliptins class of drugs. It’s used to treat type 2 diabetes, which is caused by an issue with the hormone insulin in your body.
Mode of ActionSitagliptin belongs to the gliptin family of anti-diabetic drugs. It works by inhibiting dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4), an enzyme responsible for degrading and inactivating glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). Increased insulin release after meals and enhanced glucose tolerance occur from an increased GLP-1 level in response to sitagliptin. Because of this feature, as well as the lack of weight gain associated with medication, sitagliptin is now being used as a second-tier treatment for type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Medical UsesThe drug sitagliptin is used to treat type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is a condition in which the body does not produce enough insulin or the insulin it does produce is ineffective. This can result in a spike in blood sugar levels (hyperglycaemia).
In patients with type 1 diabetes or for the treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis, Sitagliptin should not be administered because it is ineffective.
Avaiability & UsageSitagliptin is available in tablet form and should be taken once a day.
It can be taken at any time of day, such as in the morning or evening. Simply make an effort to take it at the same time every day.
With a glass of water, take your tablet. Without breaking the tablet, swallow it whole.
Sitagliptin can be taken with or without food.
Side EffectsSitagliptin, like all drugs, might produce negative effects in some people.

However, many people experience no or moderate negative effects.

Common Side Effects includes:
Headaches are the most prevalent adverse effect, affecting more than one in every 100 patients.

If your headaches continue more than a week or are severe, see your doctor.

If you get a headache after taking sitagliptin, make sure you get plenty of rest and drink lots of water. Don’t overindulge in alcoholic beverages.

Important WarningAlthough it is uncommon, some people may experience major side effects after taking sitagliptin.
If you have any of the following symptoms, call your doctor right once.
Severe stomach discomfort
Your skin may turn yellow, or the whites of your eyes may turn yellow.
Signs of kidney problems (such as a change in the amount of urine), joint pain, unusual skin blisters, or signs of heart failure (such as shortness of breath, swelling ankles/feet, unusual tiredness, or unusual/sudden weight gain), should be reported to your doctor right away.
Available BrandsSita