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Azithromycin | a Macrolide Antibiotic

 

Introduction Azithromycin available under brand names of Azomax, Macrobac, Azitma, Zetro and more, is a macrolide antibiotic with a long half-life and a high level of tissue penetration.

It is primarily used to treat respiratory, enteric, and genitourinary infections, but it can also be used to treat some sexually transmitted and enteric infections in place of other macrolides. It has a similar structure to erythromycin 2.

Class of Medicine Azithromycin is a type of antibiotic known as a macrolide antibiotic. It works by either killing or preventing the growth of bacteria. This medication, however, will not help with colds, flu, or other virus infections.
Mode of Action Bacteria require a specific process of protein synthesis, which is enabled by ribosomal proteins, in order to replicate. Azithromycin binds to the bacterial 50S ribosomal subunit’s 23S rRNA. It inhibits protein synthesis in bacteria by inhibiting the transpeptidation/translocation step as well as the assembly of the 50S ribosomal subunit. Labeling As a result, various bacterial infections are controlled. Label number seven. The high affinity of macrolides for bacterial ribosomes, including azithromycin, is consistent with their broad spectrum antibacterial activity.

Azithromycin is highly stable at low pH, giving it a longer serum half-life and higher tissue concentrations than erythromycin.

Medical Uses Azithromycin should only be used to treat or prevent infections caused by susceptible bacteria, in order to prevent the development of antimicrobial resistance and maintain the efficacy of azithromycin Label.

Azithromycin is used to treat patients who have mild to moderate infections caused by susceptible strains of the microorganisms listed in the specific conditions below. Dosages, duration of therapy, and considerations for different patient populations may differ between these infections.

Avaiability & Usage Pneumonia in the Community
Indicated for the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia caused by Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, or Streptococcus pneumoniae in patients who can take oral antibiotics.Day 1: 500 mg PO x 1 dose, followed by 250 mg PO then OD on 2-5 DaysTonsillitis or Pharyngitis
Indicated as an alternative therapy for Streptococcus pyogenes-caused pharyngitis/tonsillitis in patients who are unable to receive first-line therapy.Day 1: 500 mg PO x 1 dose, followed by 250 mg PO then OD 2-5 Days.

Skin/skin structure that is uncomplicated
Indicated for the treatment of uncomplicated Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, or Streptococcus agalactiae skin and skin structure infections.

Day 1: 500 mg PO x 1 dose, followed by 250 mg PO then Daily on Days 2-5.

Exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease caused by acute bacterial exacerbations
Acute bacterial exacerbations of chronic bronchitis caused by Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, or Streptococcus pneumoniae are indicated for treatment.

OR 500 mg PO qDay for 3 days

Alternatively, on Day 1, take 500 mg PO x 1 dose, followed by 250 mg PO qDay on Days 2-5.

Bacterial sinusitis, acute
Acute bacterial sinusitis caused by Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, or Streptococcus pneumoniae is treated with this medication.

500 mg PO Daily for three days

Chancroid Indicated for the treatment of genital ulcer disease in men caused by Haemophilus ducreyi (chancroid)

The efficacy of chancroid treatment in women has not been established.

1 dose of 1000 mg PO

Urethritis and Cervicitis caused by nongonococcal or gonococcal bacteria
It is used to treat urethritis and cervicitis caused by Chlamydia trachomatis or Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

1 dose of 1000 mg PO

Inflammatory Pelvic Disease
Indicated in patients requiring initial IV therapy for pelvic inflammatory disease caused by Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, or Mycoplasma hominis.

Side Effects These common side effects of azithromycin happen in more than 1 in 100 people. There are things you can do to help cope with them:

Feeling sick (nausea)
Diarrhoea
Being sick (vomiting)
Losing your appetite
Headaches
Feeling dizzy or tired
Changes to your sense of taste
Keep taking the medicine, but talk to your doctor or pharmacist if these side effects bother you or do not go away.

Serious side effects
Serious side effects are rare and happen in less than 1 in 1,000 people.

Call your doctor right way if:

You have a faster or irregular heartbeat (arrhythmia)
the whites of your eyes turn yellow, or your skin turns yellow (this may be less noticeable on brown or black skin), or you have pale poo with dark pee – these can be signs of liver or gallbladder problems
You get ringing in your ears (tinnitus), temporary hearing loss, or you feel unsteady on your feet (vertigo)
You have severe pain in your stomach or back – this can be a sign of inflammation of the pancreas (pancreatitis)
You have diarrhoea (perhaps with muscle cramps) that contains blood or mucus – if you have severe diarrhoea without blood or mucus for more than 4 days you should also speak to a doctor

Important Warning A word about the dangers of liver toxicity:
Because azithromycin is primarily eliminated by the liver, caution should be exercised when administering azithromycin to patients with impaired hepatic function.

A word about possible renal toxicity:
Because there is a lack of data in patients with renal GFR less than 10 mL/min, caution should be used when prescribing azithromycin to these patients.

Available Brands Azomax
Macrobac
Azitma
Zetro